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Thursday, November 10, 2011

ソウルから沖縄へ: 9条アジア宗教者会議からの訴え From Seoul to Okinawa: Final Statement of the 3rd Asia Inter-religious Conference on Article 9

From David McIntosh (Toronto, Canada) デイビッド・マッキントッシュ氏(カナダ、トロント)より。

I am pasting below the English and Japanese texts of the Statement issued by the 3rd Asia Interfaith Article 9 Conference, which took place early last month. It's rather long, as statements go, but participants agreed that context and details of Okinawa should not be short-shrifted, as it is in these details that people in other places will recognize similarities.
参考までに、先月初めに開催された第三回アジア宗教者九条会議の声明文を下に貼り込みます。(英文の下) 声明文としては長いものですが、これは、沖縄の事情をきちんと伝えることによって他の各地との類似性を浮き彫りにしたい、との参加者の願いを反映するものです。

Also, below the English and Japanese statements, I am attaching an appeal for support from Korean participants, who are in a grave struggle against their own government, which is charging ahead (at US behest) to build a naval base on "Island of Peace," Jeju.

David McIntosh
(A member of Toronto Article 9 and Vancouver Save Article 9)



Final Statement of the 3rd Asia Inter-religious Conference on Article 9

From Seoul to Okinawa

October 7, 2011

Okinawa Christian University

Article 9 of Japan’s Peace Constitution

Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes.

In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized.

1) The 3rd Asia Inter-religious Conference on Article 9 of the Japanese Peace Constitution gathered 220 participants from Japan, Okinawa, South Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, South Africa, Switzerland, Italy, Canada and the USA to see and hear the experiences of the Okinawan people. The conference was held at the Okinawa Christian University from October 5 through 7th, 2011. With our thoughts turned toward the victims of disasters arising from the Great East Japan Earthquake, Tsunami, and Fukushima Number 1 Nuclear Power Plant incident, we prayerfully reaffirm the sanctity of life, and hereby issue this Statement.

2) Article 9 of the Constitution has never been realized in Japan and least of all in Okinawa, which holds roughly 74% of American military facilities as well as other Japan Self Defense Forces bases in just 0.6% of Japanese land. Furthermore, former Prime Minister Hatoyama’s declaration that he would have the military bases in Okinawa moved out of the prefecture or to another country has not been realized. Okinawa’s bases have not only been retained, but new bases are being constructed. On Jeju Island—designated an “Island of Peace” by the government of Korea—a new naval base is being built by the government and armed forces. We, the Asia Inter-Religious Conference on Article 9 of the Japanese Peace Constitution, categorically reject foreign military basing arrangements, be it the physical bases in Okinawa and the naval base in Jeju, Korea, or unhampered access to land, air, and naval facilities as contained in the Visiting Forces Agreement between the Philippines and the United States.

3) For the foregoing reasons, be it resolved that -

· The US and Japanese governments must honor Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution and we strongly oppose any attempt by the Japanese Government to revise the same.

· We demand the Japanese government that the “sympathy budget” allocations toward the U.S. be abolished and reassigned to relief efforts in disaster-stricken areas.

· We call upon communities of faith in the United States to consider their complicity as US citizens in US policies toward Okinawa, examine their consciences, and join in advocacy for the closure of Futenma and other bases in Okinawa as well as the abandonment of plans to build a new base in Henoko.

· We demand that the proposed plan of the construction of the bases of Self Defense Forces in Miyako and Yaeyama be abandoned.

· We demand the total abolition of nuclear weapons and challenge the continuous use of nuclear energy in all its applications.

· Recognizing the horrific human toll of U.S. wars, expansionism, and hegemony, we call upon all persons of faith to join the global peace movement and oppose the imperial militarization of Asia, the Middle East and beyond.

4) In the statement issued in Seoul, Korea, on the occasion of the 2nd Asia Inter-religious Conference on Article 9 of the Japanese Peace Constitution, we affirmed that, Article 9 is more than ever relevant for regional and international relations, and is forward-looking. It can be seen as the core value of a just, peaceful, and sustainable Asian community.

5) Despite Japan regaining independence in 1952, Okinawa has remained under U.S. military rule for another 20 years. All the U.S. military bases there remain intact. During this period, a large movement arose in Okinawa demanding the return of Okinawa to Japan, whose Constitution contained the war-renouncing Article 9. This wish was finally realized in 1972, in the so-called “Return of Okinawa.” However, this was essentially only a transfer of administrative rights, which resulted in the betrayal of Okinawa’s hopes and desires. As Okinawa was being returned to a Japan that had the Three Non-Nuclear Principles, these principles should have applied to Okinawa as well, but the governments of the United States and Japan struck a secret agreement that left the portage of nuclear arms into Okinawa up to the discretion of the U.S. What Okinawa desired was to be a land without military bases, or at least “comparable to the mainland” in level. But even after the transfer of administrative rights, the situation of military base presence in Okinawa did not change. Furthermore, Okinawa has been made more “comparable to the mainland” by the construction of new military bases for the Japan Self Defense Forces. In recent years this military presence is even threatening to expand to the regions of Miyako and Yaeyama.

6) The post-war government of Japan has continually accepted the presence of U.S. and JSDF military bases, thus contravening Article 9. Removal of “the world’s most dangerous base” at Futenma and its return to Okinawans still has no schedule. Despite the opposition of 80% of Okinawa’s citizens, the government of Japan is attempting to build a new military base to replace Futenma, which will destroy and pave over the sea at Henoko. The government is also destroying its own rain forest by building a helipad in Takae. Both places support biodiversity that is 50 to 60 times as rich as the coastal waters and forests in the mainland. Furthermore, U.S. forces are planning to deploy new Osprey planes to the yet-to-be-removed base at Futenma, as well as to various facilities being constructed further north. The government of Japan speaks of reducing the burden of military bases upon Okinawa, but the reality is that the functions of bases and military armaments are being strengthened.

7) With the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty and the U.S.-Japan Status of Forces Agreement, the military continues to cause daily suffering for the people of Okinawa. From these bases in Okinawa U.S. forces were sent into the Korean War, the Viet Nam War, the Gulf War, the Afghanistan War and the Iraq War. And ever since the Gulf War the Japan Self Defense Forces have joined and collaborated as one with U.S. forces in what can only be described as acts of war.

8) The governments of both Japan and the U.S. say that the bases on Okinawa are a deterrent force. But the the military forces on Okinawa are a threat to neighboring nations. We cannot watch silently while bombers and warships are sent out from this precious land, passed down from our peace-loving ancestors, to terrorize, destroy and kill the inhabitants in every region on this earth.

9) Arms cannot bring peace but respecting the rights of people can. In spite of the lies and fraudulent assertions of both the Japanese and U.S. governments, we, as written in the Preamble of the Constitution of Japan, “have determined to preserve our security, and existence, trusting in the justice and faith of the peace-loving peoples of the world.” We believe that there is a “nature that is true and real” in the peoples of all nations, and for this reason we resolve to continue walking forward towards a world without military bases.

10) Okinawa once had its own philosophical tradition of “non-military culture.” Through friendly relations and trade, not by arms, Ryukyu (Okinawa) established relations with various Asian countries. But in 1609 it came under the de facto rule of Japan’s Satsuma Clan, as a result of an invasion by Satsuma. This year marks the 402nd year from that date. In 1879 the Ryukyu Kingdom was again invaded, this time by the Meiji government, and was annexed by force to become part of Japan. This is what is known as the “Ryukyu Disposition,” and this year marks the 132nd year from that date. In the 15-year War, which began with the self-staged Manchurian “terrorist” Incident of 1931 and lasted until Japan’s surrender in 1945, Okinawa was sacrificed to ensure the continuity of the Japanese state system. The people of Okinawa were forced by the Imperial Japanese Army, deployed to defend Okinawa, to “Live Together and Die Together” with the military. During the Battle of Okinawa, in which land battles engulfed the island’s civilian inhabitants, massacres of local residents by Japanese forces, ejection of refugees from shelter caves, and “forced mass deaths” under military orders, occurred in many locations. The Japan Ministry of Education has shown a strong tendency to dilute such facts in Japanese school texts, giving rise even to court cases over the issue. Yet the Supreme Court found, in a 2011 judgment, that there were indeed Army orders to force “mass deaths” on the Islands of Zamami, Geruma, and Tokashiki.

11) Holding the Asia Inter-religious Conference on Article 9 of the Japanese Peace Constitution here in Okinawa awakened us, people of many faiths, to the realities of the struggles of the Okinawan people. We truly pursue the realization of Article 9 in our own places, and walk together toward this realization. We commit ourselves to actively work to oppose the spread of American military bases across Asia and around the world and demand the closure of all military bases. We trust that the route to these aspirations can be found in each person’s faith. We pray for the realization of peace and take action to build peace through non-violence. The answer to violence is to embody and animate the spirit of Article 9.

Participants of the 3rd Asia Inter-religious Conference on Article 9

声明文 - 日本語











1. 第3回9条アジア宗教者会議は、2011年10月5日から7日まで、開催地沖縄を始めとする日本、韓国、台湾、フィリピン、タイ、パキスタン、南アフリカ、スイス、イタリア、カナダ、米国から220名が参集し、沖縄の人びとの体験に耳を傾け、学ぶために沖縄キリスト教大学を会場として開催されました。また、このたびの東日本大震災と福島第一原子力発電所事故による被害者に思いをはせ祈りつつ、いのちの重さを再認識し、ここに以下のことを声明いたします。

2. 日本のおいては、ただの一度も9条は実現したことがありません。とくに日本の領土の0.6%を占めながら、在日米軍の専用施設の74%と自衛隊の存在をおしつけられている沖縄は、憲法9条からもっとも遠い現実を抱え続けています。そればかりでなく、沖縄の軍事基地の県外あるいは国外への移転を言明した鳩山総理大臣は、それを貫徹することができず、むしろ沖縄の軍事基地は持続し、拡大されようとしています。さらに韓国政府から「平和の島」に指定された済州(チェジュ)島では、政府と軍とによって新しく海軍基地が建設されつつあります。私たち9条アジア宗教者会議は、陸、空、海軍施設の無制限の使用を可能にする外国軍基地協定は、沖縄の基地、済州島の海軍基地あるいは訪問米軍に関する米比協定など、すべてを断固として拒否するものであります。

3. 上記の理由に基づき、私たちはつぎのことを決意します。







4. 私たちは、韓国のソウルで開かれた第2回9条アジア宗教者会議声明の中で、9条はこれまでにないほど地域的または国際的に有意義なビジョンであることを確認しました。9条は、正義と平和が実現され、かつ持続可能なアジア共同体の未来を志向する中心的価値であります。

5. 1952年に日本が独立を回復したにもかかわらず、なお20年間沖縄は米軍統治下に置かれ、そのために米軍基地が存置されることになりました。この間、沖縄では、戦争を放棄する憲法9条を持つ日本に復帰したいという願いが大きな運動に発展していきました。その願いがついに実現したのが1972年のいわゆる「本土復帰」でした。しかし、このことにおいてすら沖縄の期待と願いは裏切られる結果となってしまいました。非核3原則を持つ日本に復帰したのですから、当然沖縄にもその原則は適用されるはずでしたが、日米両政府は密約を交わし、沖縄への核兵器持ち込みは米国の判断に委ねられることになりました。沖縄が望んだのは軍事基地のない島、せめて「本土並み」の状態になってほしいということでした。しかし、復帰後も沖縄に米軍基地が置かれる状況は変わりませんでした。そのうえ、さらに「本土並み」ということで自衛隊基地まで置かれることになりました。近年ではそれが宮古・八重山地方まで拡充されようとしています。

6. それは、憲法9条違反の米軍基地と自衛隊の存在を戦後の日本政府が認めてきてしまったからです。「世界で最も危険な基地」(ラムズフェルド元米国防長官の言葉)と言われる普天間基地の撤去とその土地の返還はいまだに目途が立っていません。80%以上の沖縄県民が反対しているにもかかわらず、日本政府は普天間基地の代わりに県内に新たな基地を建設しようとしています。生物多様性の観点からみても日本本土の50~60倍の多様性に富んだ辺野古の海を破壊し、埋め立てて新基地を作ろうとし、高江の森を破壊してヘリパッドを建設しようとしています。そしていまだ撤去されない普天間基地に、また北部に建設しようとしている各施設に、米軍は新型機オプスレイを配備しようとしています。日本政府は沖縄の基地負担軽減を口にしますが、実態はこのように世界的に貴重な沖縄の自然を破壊し、基地や軍備の機能はますます強化されようとしているのです。

7. 日米安全保障条約と日米地位協定とによって、軍隊は日常的に沖縄の人々を苦しめています。その米軍が沖縄から出撃して、朝鮮戦争・ベトナム戦争・湾岸戦争・アフガン戦争・イラク戦争に投入されたのです。そして湾岸戦争以来、日本の自衛隊も米軍と一体となって戦争行為というほかないような行動をしているのです。

8. 日米両政府は沖縄の基地は「抑止力」だといいます。しかし逆にそれは近隣諸国への脅威となっています。私たちは、先祖から譲り受けた大事な土地から発進した爆撃機や軍艦が、地球上のいかなる地域においてもその住民を脅かし、破壊、殺戮するのを黙視することはできません。

9. 軍隊は平和をもたらしません。人びとの権利を尊重することこそ平和をもたらすのです。日米両政府の嘘とまやかしにもかかわらず、日本国憲法の前文に「平和を愛する諸国民の公正と信義に信頼して、われらの安全と生存を保持しようと決意した。」とあるように、私たちはすべての国の人民に「真実の性(しょう)」が有ることを信ずる故に、軍事基地の無い世界を求めます。

10. 琉球(沖縄)は、清国(中国)とは冊封関係にありつつ、平和的交易によって広くアジアの諸国との友好関係を維持していました。1609年、日本の薩摩藩の侵攻によって実質的に薩摩の支配下に置かれることになりました。今年はその時から数えて402年目にあたります。さらに琉球王国は明治政府によって、1879年に、侵略併合され、強制的に日本国の一部とされました。これが「琉球処分」であり、今年はそれから132年目にあたります。沖縄には「非武」の思想の伝統がありましたが、15年戦争の時には武器をとって戦うことを強制されました。さらに沖縄戦では、日本の国家体制護持のための捨石とされました。沖縄の住民は、沖縄守備軍として配置された日本軍によって、軍との「共生共死」を強いられました。住民を巻き込んでの地上戦が行われた沖縄では、日本軍による住民の虐殺、避難壕からの追い出し、さらに軍の命令による「強制集団死」が各地でおこりました。文部科学省は日本の歴史教科書からそうした事実を薄めようとする傾向が強く、それが裁判にまで発展することになりました。しかし最高裁は2011年、座間味島、慶留間島、渡嘉敷島における「集団死」には軍の命令があったことを認めました。

11. 9条アジア宗教者会議がこのように沖縄で開催されたことの意義は、宗教者がこの沖縄の人びとの闘いの現状に触れて真に9条の実現をそれぞれの場で追及し、その実現に向かって歩むことにあるのです。私たちは、米軍基地がアジア各地と全世界に展開されることを阻止し、すべての軍事基地の撤廃のために行動することを誓います。このための道は、宗教者がそれぞれの宗教の立場から平和の実現を祈り、非暴力によって平和を造りだすために行動することであると、私たちは信じています。9条の精神を体現し、生かしていくところに、暴力への応えがあるのです。  



Jeju Appeal - English

Peace in Jeju’s Kangjeong Village!

Stop the construction of Navy base in Jeju

Transcending our religious differences and offering our commonalities, we, the participants of the 3rd Asia Inter-Religious Conference on Article 9, together with all peace-loving religious communities, have prayed together for peace and security in East Asia. The conflict has deepened due to the construction of a naval base at Kangjeong village in Jeju Island. Praying for peace at Kangjeong village, we declare our position as follows.

Jeju Island has been recognized by UNESCO as an ecological reserve and world heritage site, and at the same time considered as a World Geological Park because of its pristine natural environment and beautiful sceneries. Most especially, Kangjeong village where the government plans to construct a naval base was already recognized as an ecological reserve for absolute protection because of its soft coral beds and basalt rocks rarely found in the world.

We, representatives of varied religious communities, are greatly concerned that the beautiful and peaceful Jeju Island will be turned into a large naval-military facility as US’s advance base in East Asia, thus creating tensions among Asian neighbors. Furthermore, the construction of a naval base in Jeju Island will not promote peace and stability in Northeast Asia and the world. We believe that genuine peace can only be brought by mutual cooperation and dialogue, not by military superiority.

We also highlight the Korean government-initiated undemocratic decision-making processes. The desperate appeal of Kangjeong villagers to protect their peaceful living and land has been completely ignored and many violent and illegal methods have been used to suppress the villagers’ human rights and quash their appeal. Entrusted with power by the people, the government must respect the democratic legal process. Moreover, the government dependence on violent methods is unjustified.

We will pray and act for an immediate stop to the naval base construction as well as for the restoration of peace at Kangjeong village.

We demand the South Korean Government –

· To stop construction of the naval base immediately;

· To release immediately from detention the imprisoned Kangjeong villagers and peace activists;

· To resume democratic dialogue with Kangjeong villagers

October 7, 2011

Participants of the 3rd Asia Inter-religious Conference on Article 9

済州島アピール - 日本語






l 海軍基地の建設を直ちに中止してください。

l 拘束中の江汀村の村民と平和活動家を直ちに釈放してください。

l 江汀村の村民との対話を再開してください。



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