To view articles in English only, click HERE. 日本語投稿のみを表示するにはここをクリック。点击此处观看中文稿件한국어 투고 Follow Twitter ツイッターは@PeacePhilosophy and Facebook ★投稿内に断り書きがない限り、当サイトの記事の転載は許可が必要です。このブログの右サイドバーにある Contact Us フォームで連絡ください。Re-posting from this blog requires permission unless otherwise specified. Please use the Contact Us form in the right side-bar to contact us.

Saturday, October 01, 2011

From a Cold War Warrior to a Staunch Opponent of Imperialism: Special Lecture in Memory of Chalmers Johnson by Yoshida Kensei 冷戦兵士から反帝国主義者への変貌: チャルマーズ・ジョンソン追悼講演 by 吉田健正

2011年8月4-8日、沖縄国際大学と沖縄キリスト教学院大学で開催された国際会議DUO Dialogue Under Occupation の特別講義、吉田健正氏による故チャルマーズ・ジョンソン追悼講演の要旨とパワーポイントを紹介します。Yoshida Kensei, Okinawan jouranlist and author of Democracy Betrayed and numerous other books, gave a special lecture in memory of late Chalmers Johnson at the DUO (Dialogue Under Occupation) Conference, held at Okinawa International University and Okinawa Christian Unviersity from August 4 - 8.

チャルマーズジョンソン氏についてのこのブログの過去の記事もご覧ください。See past posts about Chalmers Johnson below (in English and Japanese).
Chalmers Johnson, 1931-2010

Chalmers Johnson's Op-ed in LA Times チャルマーズ・ジョンソン氏の論説、LAタイムズに掲載

Chalmers Johnson, 1931-2010 チャルマーズ・ジョンソンを偲び、遺志を引き継ぐ (吉田健正、平恒治両氏からの追悼の言葉を含む)
吉田氏のパワーポイントへのリンクはこちらです。Click below line for Yoshida's PowerPoint presentation (in Japanese).



 
講演要旨 Abstract of Yoshida's speech (see below)


冷戦兵士を反帝国主義者に変えた冷戦終結と沖縄訪問

吉田健正

[要 約]
 近年のアメリカ合衆国を、世界の政治史、アメリカの政治史の観点から見ると、どう位置づけられるか。その中で、沖縄はどのような役割を演じているのか。これら三つを重ねて論じる研究者は、昨年11月に79歳で亡くなったチャルマーズ・ジョンソン氏以外にいなかっただろう。

ジョンソン氏は、自らを冷戦戦士と呼んだ。中国や旧ソ連を敵視し、アレン・ダレス初代CA長官の下で中国やベトナムの国力評価コンサルタントを務め、ベトナム反戦運動を批判した。しかし、ソ連の崩壊は、彼を喜ばせる一方で、自国に対して懐疑的にし、彼の認識を大きく転換させた。冷戦終結後、世界最大の軍事大国になったにもかかわらず、米国はローマ帝国や大英帝国を引き継ぐ「帝国」の道を歩んでいたことに気づいたのである。君主国家のもとから、国民主権(民主主義)を掲げて立ち上げた「共和国」が世界中に軍事基地を構える「基地の帝国」へと変貌し、第二次大戦と冷戦を経て大統領の権限は強大化し、海外でスパイ活動、政府転覆、独裁国家支援、戦争を繰り返して恨まれ、国内では民主主義や経済発展を阻害する結果になった。ローマ帝国と大英帝国の歴史を繰り返したのである。このままだと、米国はさらに国際的な孤立を深め、内部矛盾を抱えて、崩落してしまうだろう、とジョンソン氏は憂慮した。

「基地の帝国」の例として、ジョンソン氏が注目したのは、沖縄である。狭小で貧しいこの県には、在日米軍基地の75%が配備され、米軍が基地の排他的運用権をもつほか、軍人・軍属・家族は日本政府の思いやり予算でショッピングモールやゴルフ場つきの暮らしをしている。婦女暴行、自動車事故も多いが、日米地位協定により治外法権さえ享受している。1995年の3人の米兵による少女レイプ事件は、日米関係さえ脅かしかねない反基地・反米運動を引き起こした。

この事件と抗議大会は、ソ連崩壊後の米国の基地帝国主義とともに、冷戦戦士・ジョンソン氏の目を覚まし、カリオルニア大学での地域(日本・中国・東アジア)研究家を反帝国主義者に変えた。ジョンソン氏は、2000年から2007年までに米帝国主義の実態と将来(傲慢に対する懲罰)について3部作を書き、「沖縄――冷戦の島」を編纂したほか、米帝国主義や沖縄に関する数々の論考を新聞などに投稿した(一部は『帝国の解体』にまとめられた)。

アメリカと他の英語圏(特に知識人、政治研究者、知的ジャーナリスト)における「沖縄問題」への関心や理解は、ジョンソン氏に負うところが大きい。氏の文章には、左翼イデオロギーとは異なる、元冷戦戦士・実証的研究者としての説得力がある。


YOSHIDA Kensei
吉田健正略歴
現糸満市出身(1941)。大阪外大(スペイン語専攻)中退のあと、名護英語学校→「オキナワ・モーニング・スター」記者を経てミズーリ大学でジャーナリズム専攻。「ウィークリー・オキナワ・タイムス」「沖縄タイムス」記者を経て、同大学院でジャーナリズム修士号。AP通信東京総局、ニューズウィーク東京支局を経て、駐日カナダ大使館で広報担当、学術交流担当→桜美林大学国際学部。2006年に退職→沖縄へ転居。

主著:『国際平和維持活動――ミドルパワー・カナダの国際貢献』(彩流社)、『カナダ――20世紀の歩み』(同)、『カナダはなぜイラク戦争に参戦しなかったのか』(高文研)『沖縄戦――米兵は何を見たか 50年後の証言』(彩流社)、Democracy Betrayed: Okinawa under U.S. Occupation (Western Washington University)、『戦争はペテンだ――バトラー将軍にみる日米地位協定』(七つ森書館)、『「軍事植民地」沖縄――日本本土との<温度差>の正体』(高文研)、『米軍のグアム統合計画――沖縄の海兵隊はグアムへ行く』(同)、『戦争依存症国家アメリカと日本』(同)

★このサイトの吉田健正氏の過去の記事はここをクリックしてください。

In Memory of Professor Chalmers Johnson

How the end of the Cold War and a visit to Okinawa turned a Cold War warrior into a staunch opponent of imperialism

YOSHIDA Kensei

Abstract

How should the United States be regarded in terms of world political history, and in terms of American political history? And what role does Okinawa play in this? Professor Chalmers Johnson, who passed away at 79 years old last November, was perhaps the only researcher that examined these three issues together.

Professor Johnson called himself a Cold War warrior. Viewing China and the former Soviet Union as enemies, he worked as a consultant under Allen Dulles, one of the earliest directors of the CIA. Johnson helped assessing the strengths of Vietnam and China and was critical of the anti-war movement during the Vietnam War. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union, which pleased him, caused him to look skeptically at the US, and led to a major change in his thinking. Johnson noticed that although the United States had become the world’s greatest military power, the country had begun to follow the path of an empire, in the tradition of the British and Roman Empires. The republic that was initially founded on the principle of popular sovereignty (i.e. democracy) in opposition to monarchy was now building military bases throughout the world and transforming itself into an “empire of bases.” After World War II and the Cold War, the powers of the President were greatly expanded, and the country increasingly became resented for its overseas espionage, overturning of foreign governments, support of dictatorships, and endless waging of war. The extensive network of bases also led to the obstruction of democracy and economic development at home. In other words, the US was repeating the history of the British and Roman Empires. Johnson was concerned that without a change of course, the US would find itself increasingly more isolated internationally, would face internal contradictions, and would eventually collapse.

Johnson focused his attention on Okinawa, as an example of the “empire of bases.” This poor and cramped prefecture hosts seventy-five percent of the US military bases in Japan. Not only has the US military been granted exclusive use rights for the bases, but also has been provided by the Japanese government with a “sympathy” budget that has made possible for base personnel and their families a lifestyle that includes shopping malls and golf courses. There have been numerous rapes and traffic accidents, but base personnel also enjoy the extraterritorial rights and protection provided by the Japan-US Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA). The 1995 case in which three US soldiers raped a young girl triggered anti-US and anti-base protests that were so intense that even the Japan-US relationship was threatened.

This case and the ensuing protests, along with the US empire of military bases that appeared after the fall of the Soviet Union, opened the eyes of the Cold War warrior Johnson and turned him into the anti-imperialist researcher of regional studies (on Japan, China, and East Asia) at the University of California. Between 2000 and 2007, Johnson wrote a trilogy of books analyzing US imperialism’s current situation and future (arrogance and its consequences), edited Okinawa: Cold War Island, and contributed numerous articles on US imperialism and Okinawa to newspapers and journals (some of which reappeared in Dismantling the Empire).

Much of the interest in and understanding of the “Okinawa problem” throughout the United States and other English-speaking countries (especially amongst intellectuals, political researchers, and astute journalists) owes a debt to the work of Chalmers Johnson. His writing, unlike much left wing ideology, has the persuasive power of both a former Cold War warrior and an empirical researcher.


A Profile of Kensei Yoshida
Kensei Yoshida was born in what is now Itoman, Okinawa in 1941. After dropping out of the Spanish program of Osaka University of Foreign Studies, Yoshida attended Nago English School. He then worked as a reporter for the Okinawa Morning Star before going to the United States, where he majored in journalism at Missouri University. After working as a reporter for the Weekly Okinawa Times and the Okinawa Times, he returned to Missouri University and completed a master’s degree in journalism. After working for AP Tokyo and Newsweek Tokyo Branch, and later as the spokesman and director of arts and science exchange at the Canadian Embassy in Japan, he became a professor of international relations at Obirin University. In 2006, he retired and moved to Okinawa.

Major Publications:

1. Kokusai heiwa iji katsudō: midorupawā kanada no kokusai kouken [UN Peacekeeping Operations: The Canadian Experience] (Sairyūsha Press)

2. Kanada: 20 seiki no ayumi [Canada in the 20th Century] (Sairyūsha Press)

3. Kanada wa naze Iraku sensou ni sansen shinakatta no ka [War against Iraq: Why did Canada not participate?] (Koubun Press)

4. Okinawasen: beihei wa nani o mita ka 50 nengo no shougen [The Battle of Okinawa: How US Servicemen Saw It 50 Years After the War] (Sairyūsha Press)

5. Democracy Betrayed: Okinawa under US Occupation (Western Washington University)

6. Sensō wa petenda: Batorā shōgun ni miru nichibei chii kyōtei [War Is A Racket: the Status of Forces Agreement in the Eyes of General Butler] (Nanatsumori Shokan)

7. Gunji shokuminchi Okinawa [Okinawa: A Military Colony] (Koubun Press)

8. Beigun no Guam tōgō keikaku: Okinawa no kaiheitai wa Guam e iku [Guam Integrated Military Development Plan: US Marines Are Relocating to Guam] (Kobunken Press)

9. Sensō izonshō kokka Amerika to Nihon [US and Japan: Countries Addicted to War] (Koubun Press).

No comments:

Post a Comment